It is 100% certain you're headed for Hell ...
for rejecting the Catholic Dogma ...
Warning: There are no bishops or priests in these times
<< On this site ... you will discover how you are being sent into Hell forever ...
your willingness to be deceived is making you eternally culpable >>
1. The Original Sin of Adam closed Heaven for all men (sanctifying grace was lost) ... Hell became the only possible destination for the immortal souls of men. 2. God re-opened Heaven by founding the Catholic Church and re-introducing sanctifying grace to men's souls ... the same grace which Adam and Eve had lost.
We are currently in the Great Apostasy (world-wide rejection of God's Catholic Dogma), these warnings apply: 3.Warning 1: A non-Catholic anti-Christ cult (the vatican-2 heretic cult) took over all Catholic properties on 8 Dec 1965 ("v-2 council" close date).
[Section 12, 13] 4.Warning 2:No one Ordained those that you think are Priests ... all Bishops of the "v-2 council" were automatically excommunicated on 8 Dec 1965.
[Section 13.2] 5.Warning 3: Your fake "priests" turned you into heretics ... the stage shows are not Mass ... participation in the vatican-2 heresy excommunicates. [Section 13.2.2] 6.Warning 4:All those dressed up like Catholic bishops and priests are ... automatically excommunicated heretics against the Catholic Dogmas.
[Section 13.6] Vatican-2-ists: You are excommunicated from the Catholic Church … Abjuration of heresy > Section 19.1
7. One can still be Catholic and get to Heaven with a proper baptism in water
[Section 7] ... believing the Dogmas ... and keeping free from mortal sin.
[Section 10.1] 8. All grace, both actual and sanctifying grace, starts with God and comes into the world through the Blessed Virgin ... as Jesus Christ Himself did.
[Section 4, 4.4] 9a. The Old Testament Israelite religion was the Catholic Faith unfulfilled ... the "judaism" fable started about 200 B.C. Jesus Christ was not a jew. [Section 39.1, 39.4] 9b. The "koran" is wrong ... Mohammed was not a prophet ... "allah" does not exist. Mohammed and "islam" contradict 4,000 years of previous prophets. [Section 113] 10.All heretics are excommunicated from Christianity ... and are headed for Hell ... with the world's pagans (those not properly baptized in water).
[Section 7.2, 8]
Translate (traduire, übersetzen, tradurre, trasladar, 번역) this Section ... now (maintenant, jetzt, ora, ahora, 지금) ... to your language ...
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The Secret "rabbinical" teachings Concerning Christians
by Rev. I. B. Pranaitis
Catholic Priest; Master of Theology and Professor
of the Hebrew Language at the Imperial Ecclesiastical Academy of the Roman
Catholic Church in Old St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg, Printing office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1892
St. Petersburg, April 13, 1892
ARCHBISHOP METROPOLITAN OF MOGHILEFF
C. Propolanis, S.Th.C, Secretary
All Rights Reserved
Printed at the Imperial Academy of Sciences (Vas. Ostr., 9 Line, No. 12)
Copyright 1939 by E. N. SANCTUARY, 156 Fifth Avenue -
INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Note 1: Throughout this text you will see the un-baptized pagans who call themselves jews referred to as "scholar", "rabbis", "having sanctity"
"writing principles", "rabbinical authorities", etc. ... Ignore all of these deceptions which may have happened because Fr. Pranaitis fell into making misleading statements at times or because of the falsification of parts of this text by anti-Christs.
Note 2:There is only one state of soul which is justified in the sight of God and that is a person who is properly baptized in water into the Catholic Church and who
believes all the Dogma of the Kingdom of God on earth -- the Catholic Church. Applying words like "scholar" and "rabbi" to people is an attack against their immortal soul because it contributes to their eternal damnation. Calling someone a "rabbi" is the same as shoving them off a spiritual cliff, it's complete insanity.
Note 3:The religion of the Old Testament Israelites was the Catholic Faith unfulfilled, it wasn't "judaism" (see Sections 7.2.1, 31, and 39.1 of this website).
Catholic writing of Daniel 9:26 > "Christ shall be slain, and the people who shall deny Him shall not be His."
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Description of the talmud
List of talmudic Books
Part I - Teaching of the talmud Concerning Christians,
1. By not helping them
2. By interfering in their work
3. By deceit in legal matters
4. By harming them in things necessary for life
Art. 2. Christians to be Harmed Directly
1. Renegades to be killed
3. Princes especially the Prince of Rome (the Pope) to be exterminated
4. All Christians to be killed
5. Killing a Christian is an acceptable sacrifice to God
6. Heaven promised to those who kill Christians
7. A Christian may be beheaded on the most solemn festivals
8. The Messiah expected will be revengeful
9. jewish prayers against Christians
10. Christian prayers for the jews
Appendix - How the Popes Treated the jews
Epilogue [inserted here instead of at the end by
KIND READER: In this work I have quoted from only a very
few of the talmudic books which refer to the Christians. For the sake of
brevity, and to spare your sensitive soul, I omitted many others which
could have been included. These texts, however, which I have quoted should
be sufficient to demonstrate how false are the statements of the jews when
they claim that there is nothing in the talmud which teaches hatred and
enmity for Christians.
If it revolted you, Christian reader, to study the horrible
blasphemies in this book, do not vent your anger on me. I did not state
in the beginning that I was going to narrate something pleasant, but merely
to show you what the talmud really teaches about Christians, and I do not
think I could have done so in a more suitable way.
I realize, however, that, since the truth does not please
everyone, there are many who will become my enemies for thus having borne
witness to the truth. And I have been reminded of this, both by the laws
of the talmud itself which threatens death to "traitors," and
more so, by the warnings of those who have had experience of the actions
which jews take against those who make known things which are not favorable
to them. They all foretold that I would perish at the hands of the jews.
In trying to prevent me from going ahead with my work, some begged me to
remember the fate of Professor Charini, who was suddenly killed after he
had undertaken to translate the talmud into the vernacular. Others reminded
me of the fate of the monk Didacus of Vilna, a convert from judaism, who
was cruelly murdered; others of those who had been persecuted for having
revealed secrets of the jewish religion. Still others warned me of the
danger to those dear to me. "Wszak ciebie zydzi zabija" (but
the jews will kill you), was repeated to me hundreds of times.
The book you now hold in your hand is the best proof that
I did not heed these warnings of my friends. I considered it unworthy of
me to keep silent just for the sake of my own personal safety while the
conflict rages between the two camps of "Semites" and "Anti
Semites," both of which claim they are fighting for the truth, while
I know that the whole truth is not to be found in either camp.
Note: The truth is only found in the Catholic Church, the truth from Heaven is
the Dogma listed in Section 3 of this website and the Catholic Sources of Dogma.
We cannot account for this totally false statement attributed to Fr. Pranaitis. See Section 39.1 of this site.
But whatever befalls me because of what I have done, I
shall gladly suffer it. I am prepared to lay down my life.
THAT I MAY BEAR WITNESS TO THE TRUTH (John 18, 37)
I. B. PRANAITIS
MANY people today are keenly interested to know what the
jewish talmud really teaches about Christians, and for an accurate, authentic
treatise on this subject, there is no need to go further than the scholarly
work of the Rev. Father B. Pranaitis, an able Roman Catholic theologist
and Hebraist, formerly on the staff of the Roman Catholic college of the
Imperial Academy in old St. Petersburg. His work is in Hebrew and Latin
and bears the imprimatur of his ecclesiastical superior.
This is an accurate translation of Father Pranaitis' Latin
text, and it is felt that it will be appreciated by those who are interested
to know what this great scholar wrote on this important subject from original
talmudic sources. Father Pranaitis was one of those "liquidated"
by the Cheka during the Bolshevist revolution in Russia.
Many readers will recall that we published a book in 1934
entitled, "Are these Things So?" said by many to reveal many
things thereto unknown. No reader with an open mind could answer that title-question
in the negative. We believe that this present work supplies a sequal to
our previous book, and that it proves that such things "Are So."
This work has been carefully translated and edited and will stand the test
of scholarship, and therefore win the respect of the American people. The
Intelligence Department of the defense forces of every country must supply
accurate information if defeat is to be avoided.
This book is sent forth by one who has dared to turn on
the light of publicity in other publications. We shall watch with interest
the reactions that will follow its appearance, and venture to suggest that
critics be as careful to document their evidence as has been done with
the facts presented herein.
E. N. SANCTUARY
156 Fifth Avenue
New York, N.Y.
In order to requite in some measure your very great kindness
towards me, evidences of which I have experienced so often and in so many
ways, I have undertaken to dedicate this little book to you. It is small
in size but has been prepared with great care and labor, and I am led by
the hope that you will not spurn it; for it is the first fruits of the
labor of one whom you were once so kindly pleased to style the first fruits
of your labors as Rector of this Academy. I therefore beg your Excellency
to bless this work which I have recently completed, so that it may fulfil
the purpose for which it was written. Bless me also that I may soon accomplish
greater works for the glory of God and for the honor and advancement of
our Alma Mater, over which you have ruled for eight years, and of which
you are its greatest ornament.
May these pages be to Your Excellency the proof of my
perpetual and sincere love and gratitude.
Your Excellency's devoted disciple,
IUSTINUS BONAVENTURA PRANAITIS
"Let our writings be open to all the people. Let
them see what our moral code is like! We need not be afraid of this test,
for we have a pure heart and a clean spirit. Let the nations investigate
the habitations of the children of Israel, and of their own accord convince
themselves of what they are really like! They will then exclaim for certain
with Balaam, when he went out to curse Israel: 'How beautiful are thy tents,
O Israel: how beautiful thy homes!(1)
"In its attitude towards non-jews, the jewish religion
is the most tolerant of all the the religions in the world....The precepts
of the ancient rabbis, though inimical to Gentiles, cannot be applied in
any way to Christians."(2)
"A whole series of opinions can be quoted from the
writings of the highest rabbinical authorities to prove that these teachers
inculcated in their own people a great love and respect for Christians,
in order that they might look upon Christians, who believe in the true
God, as brothers, and pray for them."(3)
"We hereby declare the the talmud does not contain
anything inimical to Christians."(4)
(1) J. Singer: Should the jews become Christians?
p.6. Vienna, 1884.
(2) Daniel Chwolson: Do jews use Christian Blood? pp. 11, 12,
St. Petersburg, 1879.
(3) Polish Magazine Izraelita (Warsaw) No. 48, p. 459c, 1891.
(4) Dr. A. Jellenek: Gegen die Antisemiten (Against the Anti-Semites)
p. 9, Vienna, 1882.
MANY people who are interested in the jewish question
are wont to ask whether or not there is anything in the talmud which is
not beautiful and sublime, and entirely removed from anything like hatred
of Christians. The confusion of opinion about the matter is so great, that
to listen to those who argue so wisely about it, you would think that they
were discussing a very ancient and remote race of people, and not the people
of Israel who live in our midst according to an unchanging moral code by
which the religious and social life of the jews has been regulated to this
Note: The religion of the Old Testament Israelites was the Catholic Faith unfulfilled. "The people
of Israel who live in our midst" do not live according to an unchanging moral code because
they are un-baptized pagans, and pagans do not have a moral codes either externally or in their
abandoned souls. The words "social life of the jews ... to this day" is a deception in that it
implies that the pagans dressed in their jew costumes have some connection to the Old Testament
Israelites, this is completely false since "talmudic judaism" is an apostasy that left God's
covenant with the Israelites around 200 B.C. for an offshoot of Babylonian paganism. See Section 39.1 of this site.
This being so, I have undertaken to show what the talmud
really teaches about Christians, and thus satisfy the wishes of those who
desire to find out about this doctrine from genuine original sources.
To this end I have translated the best known talmudic
books which refer to the Christians, and have arranged these sources in
such order as to bring out clearly the picture of a Christian as represented
to the jews by the talmud.
Lest I be accused of using a corrupted text of the talmud
or of not having interpreted it correctly, as is generally the case with
those who have attempted to disclose secret jewish teachings, I have placed
the Hebrew text opposite the Latin.(5)
(5) In this book the Hebrew text has been omitted — Translator
I have divided the whole into two sections, the first
of which treats of the teachings of the talmud about Christians, and the
other, the rules which jews are obliged to follow when living among the
I preface these with a brief discussion about the talmud
itself in the following chapter.
THE talmud gets its name from the word LAMUD — taught,
and means The Teaching. By metonymy it is taken to mean the book
which contains the Teaching, which teaching is called talmud, that is,
the doctrinal book which alone fully expounds and explains all the knowledge
and teaching of the jewish people.
As to the origin of the talmud, the rabbis(6)
regard Moses as its first author. They hold that, besides the written law
which Moses received from God on Mount Sinai on tables of stone, which
is called Torah Schebiktab, he also received interpretations of
it, or the oral law, which is called Torah Shebeal Peh. They say
that this is the reason why Moses remained so long on the mountain, as
God could have given him the written law in one day.(7)
(6) cf. rabbi Levi in Berakhoth, fol. 5a; rabbi
Iochanan in Megillah, f.19b.
(7) To prove this they appeal to Exodus Ch. XXIV, 12: "And
the Lord God said to Moses, come up to me into the mountain, and be there:
and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which
I have written; that thou mayest teach them." They assert that in
this passage the words "tables of stone" mean the ten commandments,
that "a law" means the Pentateuch, "commandments" mean
the Mischnah; "which I have written" the Prophets and
the Hagiographers; and "that thou mayest teach them" the Gemarah.
cf. Berakhoth, fol. 5a.
Note: This is complete fiction, Moses has no relationship to the talmud or to the
unbaptized pagans who call themselves jews. See Sections 31 and 39.1 Sub-parts F and G of this website.
The religion of the Old Testament Israelites was the Catholic Faith unfulfilled it wasn't "judaism". See Section 39.1 of this site.
Moses is said to have transmitted this oral law to Joshua;
Joshua in turn to the seventy Elders; the Elders to the Prophets, and the
Prophets to the Great Synagogue. It is held that it was later transmitted
successively to certain rabbis until it was no longer possible to retain
Whatever may be said about this story of the rabbis, it
is sufficiently known to us that before the birth of Christ, schools existed
in Palestine in which sacred literature was taught. The commentaries of
the Doctors of the law were noted down on charts and lists as an aid to
memory, and these, when collected together, formed the beginnings of the
Note: This is deception in that it says that the un-baptized pagans who call themselves jews
have something to do with the writings of the Old Testament Israelites ... the Old Testament was written
by the Catholic Church unfulfilled. The Old Testament Israelite covenant writings were about the Catholic Faith
unfulfilled. These writings have absolutely nothing to do with the pagans who call themselves jews. See Section 39.1 of this site.
In the second century after Christ, rabbi Jehuda who,
because of the sanctity of his life, was called The Saint, and The Prince,
Note: This is a serious error in this text, there is no such thing as an un-baptized pagan
("rabbi" Jehuda) who maintains "santity of life" .... it is a spiritual impossibilty when
your immortal soul is in the un-baptized state of Original Sin and abandoned by God the Holy Spirit.
See Sections 31 and 45 of this website.
Reject and ignore all future errors which are along these lines in this text. There is only one state of soul which is
justified in the sight of God and that is a person who is properly baptized in water into the Catholic Church and
who believes all the Dogma and Sources of Dogma of the Kingdom of God on earth -- the Catholic Church.
~ ~ ~
realizing that the learning of the jews was diminishing, that their oral
law was being lost, and that the jewish people were being dispersed, was
the first to consider ways and means of restoring and preserving their
oral law. He collected all the lists and charts and from them he made a
book which was called the Sepher Mischnaioth, or Mischnah
— a Deuterosis, or secondary law. He divided it into six parts,
each of which was divided into many chapters. We shall consider these later.
The Mischnah is the foundation and the principal
part of the whole talmud. This book was accepted by the jews everywhere
and was recognized as their authentic code of law. It was expounded in
their Academies in Babylon — at Sura, Pumbaditha and Nehardea — and in
their Academies in Palestine — at Tiberias, Iamnia and Lydda.
As the interpretations increased with the passing of time,
the disputations and decisions of the doctors of the law concerning the
Mischnah were written down, and these writings constituted another
part of the talmud called the Gemarah.
These two parts are so disposed throughout the whole talmud
that the Mischnah serves first as a kind of text of the law, and
is followed by the Gemarah as an analysis of its various opinions
leading to definite decisions.
All the precepts of the Mischnah, however, were
not discussed in the jewish schools. Those whose use was nullified by the
destruction of the Temple, and those whose observation was possible only
in the Holy Land were not commented upon. Their explanation was left until
the coming of Elias and the Messiah. For this reason some parts of the
Mischnah are lacking in the Gemarah.
In interpreting the Mischnah of rabbi Jehuda, the
schools of Palestine and Babylon followed each their own method, and by
thus following their own way gave rise to a twofold Gemarah — the
Jerusalem and the Babylonian versions. The author of the Jerusalem version
was rabbi Jochanan, who was head of the synagogue in Jerusalem for eighty
years. He wrote thirty-nine chapters of commentaries on the Mischnah
which he completed in the year 230 A.D.
The Babylonian Gemarah, however, was not compiled
by any one person, nor at any one time. rabbi Aschi began it in 327 A.D
and labored over it for sixty years. He was followed by rabbi Maremar about
the year 427 A.D., and it was completed by rabbi Abina about the year 500
A.D. The Babylonian Gemarah has thirty-six chapters of interpretations.
This twofold Gemarah, added to the Mischnah,
makes also a twofold talmud: The Jerusalem version, which, on account of
its brevity and obscurity, is not much used; and the Babylonian version,
which has been held in the highest esteem by jews of all times.
The Gemarah is followed by additions called Tosephoth.(8)
It was thus that rabbi Chaia first styled his opinions on the Mischnaioth.
He and rabbi Uschaia were the first to explain this book publicly in
the schools. Commentaries on the Mischnah which were made by the
doctors outside the schools were called Baraietoth,(9)
or extraneous opinions.
(8) From Tosepheth, or Tosiphta, meaning
(9) From Baria, extraneous, or Baraietha, extraneous
These Commentaries were further supplemented by other
decisions called Piske Tosephoth, short theses and simple principles.
For nearly five hundred years after the Babylonian talmud
was completed, the study of literature was greatly hampered partly due
to public calamities and partly owing to dissensions among the scholars.
But in the eleventh century others wrote further additions to the talmud.
Chief among these were the Tosephoth of rabbi Ascher.
Besides these there appeared the Perusch of rabbi
Moische ben Maimon, called by the jews Rambam for short, by the Christians
Maimonides, and by rabbi Schelomo, Iarchi or Raschi.
Thus, the Mischna, Gemarah, Tosephoth,
the marginal notes of rabbi Ascher, the Piske Tosephoth and the
Perusch Hamischnaioth of Maimonides, all collected into one, constitute
a vast work which is called the talmud
* * * * *
The main parts of the talmud, which we mentioned above,
I. ZERAIM: concerning seeds. It treats of seeds, fruits,
herbs, trees; of the public and domestic use of fruits, of different seeds,
II. MOED: concerning festivals. It treats of the time when the Sabbath
and other festivals are to begin, ended and celebrated.
III. NASCHIM: concerning women. It treats of marrying and repudiating
wives, their duties, relations, sicknesses, etc.
IV. NEZIKIN: concerning damages. It treats of damages suffered by men
and animals, penalties and compensations.
V. KODASCHIM: concerning holiness. It treats of sacrifices and various
VI. TOHOROTH: concerning purifications. It treats of the soiling and
purifying of vessels, bedclothes and other things.
Each of these six parts, which the jews call Schishah
Sedarim—six orders or ordinances—is divided into books or tracts, called
Massiktoth, and the books into chapters, or Perakim.(10)
(10) From Seder, order; Massekheth, tract;
* * * * *
I. ZERAIM. Contains eleven books or Masechtoth.
1. BERAKHOTH—Benedictions and prayers. Treats of liturgical
2. PEAH—Corner of a field. Treats of the corners and gleanings of the
field . . . the olives and grapes to be left to the poor.
3. DEMAI—Doubtful things. Whether or not tithes must be paid on such.
4. KILAIM—Mixtures. Treats of various mixings of seeds.
5. SCHEBIITH—the Seventh. Treats of the Sabbatical Year.
6. TERUMOTH—Offerings and Oblations. The Heave offerings for the priests.
7. MAASEROTH—the Tithes, to be given to the Levites.
8. MAASER SCHENI—the Second Tithe.
9. CHALLAH—the Dough, the portion to be given thereof to the Priests.
10. ORLAH—the Uncircumcised. Treats about the fruits of a tree during
the first three years after its plantings.
11. BIKKURIM—the First Fruits to be brought to the Temple.
II. MOED. Contains twelve Books or Masechtoth.
1. SCHABBATH—the Sabbath. Treats of kinds of work prohibited
on that day.
2. ERUBHIN—Combinations. Contains precepts about food for the Sabbath
3. PESACHIM—Passover. Treats of the laws relating to the Feast of Passover
and the Paschal Lamb.
4. SCHEKALIM—Shekel. Treats of the size and weight of the shekel.
5. IOMA—the Day of Atonement. Treats of prescriptions for that Day.
6. SUKKAH—the Tabernacle. Treats of the laws concerning the feast of
7. BETSAH—the Egg of the Day of Feast. Treats of the kind of work prohibited
and permitted on the festivals.
8. ROSCH HASCHANAH—New Year. Treats of the Feast of New Year.
9. TAANITH—Fasts. Treats of public fasts.
10. MEGILLAH—the Scroll. Treats of the reading of the Book of Esther.
Contains the description of the Feast of Purim.
11. MOED KATON—Minor Feast. Treats of laws relating to the days intervening
between the first and last days of
Pesach and Succoth.
12. CHAGIGAH—Comparison of rites on on the three feasts of Pesach,
Sukkoth and Tabernacles.
III. NASCHIM. Contains seven Books or Masechtoth.
1. JEBBAMOTH—Sisters in Law. Treats of Levirate marriage.
2. KETHUBOTH—Marriage Deeds. Treats of dower and marriage settlements.
4. GITTIN—booklet on Divorces.
5. NEDARIM—Vows. Treats of vows and their annulment.
6. NAZIR—the Nazarite. Treats of the laws concerning the Nazarites
and those who separate themselves from the world and consecrate themselves
7. SOTAH—the Woman suspected of adultery.
IV. NEZIKIN. Contains ten Books or Masechtoth.
1. BABA KAMA—First Gate. Treats of Damages and Injuries
and their remedies.
2. BABA METSIA—Middle Gate. Treats of laws concerning found property,
concerning trust, concerning buying and selling, lending, hiring and renting.
3. BABA BATHRA—Last Gate. Treats of laws concerning real estate and
commerce, mostly based on the traditional law. Also concerning hereditary
4. SANHEDRIN—Courts. Treats of the courts and their proceedings, and
the punishment of capital crimes.
5. MAKKOTH—Stripes. The 40 stripes (minus one) inflicted on criminals.
6. SCHEBUOTH—Oaths. Treats different kinds of oaths.
7. EDAIOTH—Testimonies. Contains a collection of traditional laws and
decisions gathers from the testimonies of the distinguished teachers.
8. HORAIOTH—Decisions. Treats of the sentences of Judges and the punishment
9. ABHODAH ZARAH—Idolatry.
10. ABHOTH—Fathers. Treats of laws of the fathers. It is called also
V. KODASCHIM. Contains eleven Books or Masechtoth.
1. ZEBBACHIM—Sacrifices. Treats of animal sacrifices and
the mode of their offering.
2. CHULIN—Profane Things. Treats of the traditional manner of slaughtering
animals for ordinary use.
3. MENACHOTH—Meat-offerings. Treats of meat-and-drink offerings.
4. BEKHOROTH—the First Born. Treats of the laws concerning the first
born of man and animals.
5. ERAKHIN—Estimations. Treats of the mode in which persons dedicated
to the Lord by a vow are legally appraised in order to be redeemed.
6. TEMURAH—Exchange. Treats of the laws concerning sanctified things
having been exchanged.
7. MEILAH—Trespass, Sacrilege. Treats of the sins of violating or profaning
8. KERITHUTH—Excisions. Treats of the sins subject to the punishment
of excision, and their expiation by sacrifices.
9. TAMID—the Daily Sacrifice. Describes the Temple services connected
with the daily morning and evening offerings.
10. MIDDOTH—Measurements. Describes the measurements and description
of the Temple.
11. KINNIM—the Birds' Nests. Treats of the sacrifices consisting of
fowls, the offerings of the poor, etc.
VI. TOHOROTH. Contains twelve Books or Masechtoth.
1. KELIM—Vessels. Treats of the conditions under which
domestic utensils, garments, etc., receive ritual cleanness.
2. OHOLOTH—Tents. Treats of tents and houses, and how polluted and
3. NEGAIM—Plagues. Treats of the laws relating to Leprosy.
4. PARAH—the Heifer. Treats of the laws concerning the red heifer and
the use of its ashes for the purification of the unclean.
5. TOHOROTH—Purifications. Treats of some lesser degrees of uncleanness
lasting only until sunset.
6. MIKVAOTH—Wells. Treats of the conditions under which wells and reservoirs
are fit to be used for ritual purifications.
7. NIDDAH—Menstruation. Treats of the legal uncleanness arising from
certain conditions in women.
8. MAKSCHIRIN—Preparations. Treats of liquids that prepare and dispose
seeds and fruits to receive ritual uncleanness.
9. ZABHIM—Concerning nightly pollution and gonorrhea. Treats on the
uncleanness arising from such secretions.
10 TEBHUL IOM—Daily washing.
11. IADAIM—Hands. Treats of the ritual uncleanness of hands, according
to the traditional law, and of their purification.
12. OKETSIN—Stalks of fruit. Treats of stalks and shells of fruit as
conveying ritual uncleanness.
The complete talmud contains 63 books in 524 chapters.
Added to these are four other shorts tracts, which have
not been included in the regular talmud. They have been added by later
writers and exponents.
These four are:
MASSEKHETH SOPHERIM—the Tract of Scribes. Treats of the
mode of writing the books of the law. Has 21 chapters.
EBHEL RABBETI—a large treatise on Mourning. Has 14 chapters.
KALLAH—the Bride. On the acquisition of the bride, on her ornaments
and other things pertaining to the bride. Has one chapter.
MASSEKHETH DEREKH ERETS—the Conduct of Life. Divided into RABBAH—major
parts, and ZUTA—the minor parts. Has 16 chapters. At the end is added a
special chapter—PEREK SCHALOM—on Peace.
* * * * *
Since the talmud was such a voluminous and disordered
work, there was a need of a compendium which would facilitate its study.
To supply this need, therefore, rabbi Isaac ben Jacob Alphassi, in 1032,
published a Shorter talmud, which he called Halakhoth—Constitutions.
He omitted all lengthy discussions and preserved only those parts which
had to do with the practical things of life. Since this work, however,
had no order to it, it was not considered of great worth.
The first to issue a well ordered work on jewish Law was
Maimonides, styled the "Eagle of the Synagogue." In 1180 he produced
his celebrated work Mischhah Torah—Repetition of the Law, also called
Iad Chazakah—the Strong Hand. It contains four parts or volumes
and 14 books and includes the whole talmud. Maimonides also included much
philosophical discussion in this work and attempted to establish many laws
of his own. Because of this he was excommunicated by his people and condemned
to death. He fled to Egypt where he died in the year 1205.
In spite of this, the value of his work increased in time,
and for a while an expurgated version was held in the highest esteem by
the jews. A drawback to this work is that it contains many laws which were
of no value after the destruction of the Temple.
An edition of the work of Maimonides, expurgated of all
his philosophical innovations and of all the old, useless laws, was edited
in 1340, in strict accord with the ideas of the rabbis, by Jacob ben Ascher,
to which he gave the name Arbaa Turim—The Four Orders, which are:
I. ORACH CHAIIM: The seeds of Life, and treats of the
daily life in the home and in the Synagogue.
II. IORE DEAH: which teaches knowledge about foods, purifications
and other religious laws.
III. CHOSCHEN HAMMISCHPAT: private judgments about civil
and criminal laws.
IV. EBHEN HAEZER: The Rock of Help, which treats of the
laws of marriage.
Since Alphasi, Maimonides and Jacob ben Ascher disagreed
on many points, which gave rise to different interpretations of the same
law, there was great need of a book which would contain short, concise
solutions to controversies, and which would supply to the jewish people
a law book worthy of the name.
Joseph Karo, a rabbi of Palestine (born 1488, died 1577),
supplied this need by his celebrated commentary on the Arbaa Turim,
which he called Schulchan Arukh — the Prepared Table. Since, however,
the customs of oriental jews differed greatly from those of western jews,
even the Schulchan Arukh, of Joseph Karo did not suffice for jews
everywhere. And for this reason rabbi Mosche Isserles wrote a commentary
on the Schulchan Arukh, entitled Darkhe Mosche, the Way of
Moses, which received the same acceptance in the West as the work of Joseph
Karo in the East.
At the present time, the Schulchan Arukh is regarded
as the obligatory Law Code of the jews, and they use it principally in
their studies.(11) Many commentaries
have been written on each part of this book.
(11) To jews of today the talmud has the same value as
the works of the Church Fathers have for Christians. The Schulchan Arukh
corresponds to our Compendium of Theology.
An important point to note is that this work has always
been regarded by the jews as holy. They have always held it, and still
hold it, as more important than the Sacred Scriptures.The talmud itself
shows this very clearly:
In the tract Babha Metsia, fol. 33a, we read:
"Those who devote themselves to reading the Bible
exercise a certain virtue, but not very much; those who study the Mischnah
exercise virtue for which they will receive a reward; those, however,
who take upon themselves to study the Gemarah exercise the highest
Likewise in the tract Sopherim XV, 7, fol. 13b:
"The Sacred Scripture is like water, the Mischnah
wine, and the Gemarah aromatic wine.
The following is a well-known and highly praised opinion
in the writings of the rabbis:
"My son, give heed to the words of the scribes rather
than to the words of the law."(12)
(12) cf. Erubhin, f. 21b
The reason for this is found in the tract Sanhedrin
X, 3, f.88b:
"He who transgresses the words of the scribes sins
more gravely than the transgressors of the words of the law."
Also when there are differences of opinion between the
Law and the doctors, both must be taken as the words of the Lord God.
In the tract Erubhin, f.13b, where it is related
that there was a difference of opinion between the two schools of Hillel
and Schamai, it is concluded that:
"The words of both are the words of the living God."
In the book Mizbeach,(13)
cap. V, we find the following opinion:
"There is nothing superior to the Holy talmud."
(13) cf. Joan. Buxtorf, Recensio operis talmud,
Contemporary defenders of the talmud speak of it almost
in the same way.(14)
(14) cf. talmud Babli, Tract. Berachoth,
Berlin edit., 1842. Pref. p. 8.
What Christians have thought of the talmud is amply proved
by the many edicts and decrees issued about it, by which the supreme rulers
in Church and State proscribed it many times and condemned this sacred
Secondary Law Code of the jews to the flames.
In 553 the Emperor Justinian forbade the spread of the
talmudic books throughout the Roman Empire.(15)
In the 13th century "Popes Gregory IX and Innocent IV condemned the
books of the talmud as containing every kind of vileness and blasphemy
against Christian truth, and ordered them to be burned because they spread
many horrible heresies."(16)
(15) cf. Authenticae Constitutiones, Novella 146.
(16) cf. Corp. iuris can. VII Decretal, lib. V,
Later, they were condemned by many other Roman Pontiffs—Julius
III, Paul IV, Pius IV, Pius V, Gregory XIII, Clement VIII, Alexander VII,
Benedict XIV, and by others who issued new editions of the Index of Forbidden
Books according to the orders of the Fathers of the Council of Trent, and
even in our own time.(17)
(17) In the latest edition of this Index Expurgatorius
"by order of Our Holy Lord Pope Leo XIII now happily governing the
Church of Christ," issued in 1887, "The talmud and other jewish
books" are proscribed as follows: "Although in the Index issued
by Pope Pius IV, the jewish talmud with all its glossaries, annotations,
interpretations and expositions were prohibited; but if published without
the name talmud and without its vile calumnies against the Christian religion
they could be tolerated; however Our Holy Lord Pope Clement VIII in his
Constitution against impious writings and jewish books, published in Rome
in the year of Our Lord 1592 . . . proscribed and condemned them: it was
not his intention thereby to permit or tolerate them even under the above
conditions; for he expressly and specially stated and willed, that the
impious talmudic, Cabalistic and other nefarious books of the jews be entirely
condemned and that they must remain always condemned and prohibited, and
that his Constitution about these books must be perpetually and inviolably
The latest attempt to extirpate the talmudic books was
undertaken in 1510 by Emperor Maximilian who, having been urged thereto
by the converted jew Johannus Pfefferkorn, ordered that jewish books be
confiscated and handed over to the Universities to be examined. This gave
rise to the famous "Reuchlinian" controversy, from the name of
Reuchlin, who was advisor to the Duke of Wirtenberg, and who defended parts
of the talmud. He was upheld by the celebrated humanists, Erasmus of Rotterdam,
Ulrich Hutten, Aegidius of Viterbo, and others. This controversy raged
all over Europe. After much deliberation the universities of Erfort, Moguntina,
Louvain and Paris, accused Reuchlin of being a jewish propagandist; the
chief Inquisitor, Dominus Hoogstraten, however, accused him of depraved
heresy and summoned him before the law. Finally the case was brought to
Rome and the judges there, in 1516, favored the cause of Reuchlin. The
case was closed by Pope Leo X who ordered both sides to remain silent,
and without giving any definite decision on the matter. Thus, neither was
Reuchlin declared to be innocent, nor the talmud condemned to the flames.
[As to the attitude of the Catholic Church towards the
jews, see Appendix at the end of this book: "How the Popes Treated
At the beginning of the 16th century, when the peace of
the Church was disturbed by new religions, the jews began to distribute
the talmud openly, aided by the art of printing then recently invented.
The first printed edition of the whole talmud, containing all its blasphemies
against the Christian religion,(18)
was published in Venice in the year 1520.(19)
And almost all jewish books published in that century, which was favorable
to them, are complete and genuine.
(18) A sample edition, consisting of 12 volumes folio,
may be seen in the Imperial Hall of the Vienna Library, from which many
copies have been made.
(19) The jews are wont to point triumphantly to the fact that it was
in the same year that Martin Luther burned the Bull of Pope Leo X. cf.
article by Em. Deitsch in the Quarterly Review Oct. 1867, entitled "What
is the talmud"?
Towards the end of the 16th century and at the beginning
of the 17th, when many famous men undertook diligently to study the talmud,
the jews, fearing for themselves, began to expugn parts of the talmud which
were openly inimical to Christians. Thus the talmud which was published
at Basle in 1578 has been mutilated in many places.
And at Synod in Poland, in the year 1631, the rabbis of
Germany and other countries declared that nothing which would annoy the
Christians and cause persecution of Israel, should be printed. For this
reason there are signs of many things missing in the jewish books which
were published in the following century and thereafter. The rabbis explain
from memory what these things mean, for they possess the genuine books
which Christians rarely see.
However, jewish books were published later with very few
mutilations in Holland—where the jews who were expelled from Spain were
kindly received. The talmud published there in 1644-1648 is almost similar
to the Venetian edition.(20)
(20) Printed in small characters, in large quarto. It
is to be noted that almost all editions of the talmud have the same number
of folios and the same disposition of the text. The large or small form
depends upon the type.
The latest device invented to deceive the censors was
to insert the word haiah (was) with the genuine text, as if to indicate
that the matter in question once had its place there.(21)
But by so doing they only cleanse the outside of the cup. For in many places
they do show what they mean, ex.gr. by the words gam attah,
"even now," viz. "this law obliges"; and aphilu
bazzemanhazzeh, "even to this day" viz. "this
law holds," and such like.(22)
(21) Following is a sample of this: Schulchan Arukh,
a part of the ancient Venetian edition of 1594 says: "As to those
who worship the stars and planets, when there is no war between them and
us . . . they are not to be set free," etc. In the same place in an
edition published at Vilna in 1873 we read: "As to idolators of the
seven people, during the time when there WAS no war between them and us
. . . they are not to be set free," etc.
(22) cf. Choschen ham. 338,10; Iore deah, 159, 1, etc.
* * * * *
We must add a few remarks about that other very well known
book of the jews, called the ZOHAR.
According to some rabbis, Moses, after he had been instructed
in the interpretation of the law on Mount Sinai, did not pass this information
to Joshua nor he to the Elders, but to Aaron, Aaron to Eleazer, and so
on until the oral teachings had been put into book form called the ZOHAR,
so called from the name ZEHAR, meaning to shine forth. For it is an illustration
of the books of Moses, a commentary on the Pentateuch.
The author is said to have been R. Schimeon ben Jochai,
a disciple of R. Akibha who, fifty years after the destruction of the Temple,
ended his life as a martyr about the year 120 A.D. in Hadrian's war against
the jews. Since, however, names of men appear in this book who lived many
centuries after the year indicated, and since neither Rambam (R. Mosche
ben Nachman), nor R. Ascher, who died about the year 1248 A.D., make no
mention of it, it is more likely that those are nearer the truth who say
that the book of Zohar first saw the light about the 13th century. Especially
is this considered likely since about this time a book was produced which
is similar in argument and style to the Chaldaic type of writing.
It consists of three volumes in large octavo.
* * * * *
Many other works have been published by the jewish teachers
which are used in the study of jewish law, and which are held in high esteem
since they explain many obscure passages in the talmud. Some of them are
cited in this book, and are as follows:
BIAR—Declaration, elucidation, Commentary on another Commentary.
These declarations differ from one another.
HALAKOTH—usually written HILKHOTH—Decisions or Dissertations.
Separate books of Holy Scriptures and of the talmud by different rabbis:
Maimonides, Beshai, Edels, Moses of Kotzen, Kimchi and others. In most
cases citations are given from HILKOTH AKUM by Maimonides. These contain
dissertations on stars and planets and the status of nations. There is
another—HILKOTH MAAKHALOTH ASAVOROTH—dissertation about forbidden foods.
IUCHASIN or SEPHER IUCHASIN—dissertations on lineage.
Treats of Sacred and jewish history from the beginning of the world until
1500. Printed at Cracow, 1580.
JALKUT—a collected commentary from various ancient books.
Supposed to have not a literal but allegorical meaning. Author: rabbi Shimeon
KED HAKKEMACH—Barrel of flour. Contains places of theological
communities in alphabetical order. Author: rabbi Bechai of Lublin.
MAGEN ABRAHAM—Shield of Abraham. Author: Perizola.
MIZBEACH HAZZAHABH—the Golden Altar. A Cabalistic book.
Author: R. Schelomon ben rabbi Mordechai. Printed at Basle, in 1602.
MACHZOR—a Cycle. Book of Prayers used on great festivals.
MENORATH HAMMAOR—Candlestick of light. A talmudic book.
Contains Aggadoth and Medraschim. i.e., allegorical and historical
commentaries on the entire talmud. Author: rabbi Isaac Abhuhabh. Printed
MAIENE HAIESCHUAH—Fountains of the Savior. An exquisite
Commentary on Daniel by rabbi Isaac Abarbanel. There are numerous disputations
against Christians. Printed in 1551.
MIKRA GEDOLAH—the Great Convocation. A Hebrew Bible with
commentaries by R. Salomon Iarchi and R. Ezra.
MASCHMIA IESCHUAH—The Preacher of Salvation. Explanations
on all the Prophets. On future redemption. Author: R. Abarbanel.
NIZZACHON—Victory. Attacks on Christians and on the Four
Gospels. Author: rabbi Lipman. Printed in 1559.
SEPHER IKKARIM—Book on fundamentals or articles of faith.
It contains one very bitter attack against the Christian faith.
EN ISRAEL—the Eye of Israel. A celebrated book. Has a
second part —BETH JAKOBH—the House of Jacob. Embraces the most delightful
talmudic histories. Printed in Venice, in 1547.
SCHAARE ORAH—the Gates of Light. A most celebrated Cabalistic
book. Author: Ben Joseph Gekatilia.
SCHEPHAA TAL—Abundance of Dew. A Cabalistic book. A key
to the book of Zohar and other similar books. Author: rabbi Schephtel Horwitz
TOLDOTH IESCHU—the Generations of Jesus. A little pamphlet
full of blasphemies and maledictions. Contains the history of Christ. Full
of false and deceiving manifestations.
In preparing this booklet I have used the following source
The talmud. Edition of Amsterdam, 1644-48, in 14 volumes.
SCHULKHAN ARUKH, by rabbi Joseph Karo. Edition of Venice,
1594. Without commentaries.
IORE DEAH. Numerous quotations. Edition of Krakow.
ZOHAR. Edition of Amsterdam, 1805. 3 volumes.
MIKRA GEDOLAH. Edition of Amsterdam, 1792, 12 volumes,
edition of Basle, 1620, 2 volumes, edition of Venice.
HILKHOTH AKUM, of R. Maimonides, edition by Vossius, 1675
As auxillary works I have used:
JOANNES BUXDORFIUS. a Lexicon Chaldaicum, talmudicum et
rabbinicum, Basle, 1640. b. De Abreviaturis Hebraicis; Operis talmudis
Recensio; Biblicothea rabbinica. Basle, 1712. c. Synagoga Judaica. Basle,
JOH. CHRISTOPHORI WAGENSEILII, Sota. Aldtorfi Noricum,
GEORGII ELIEZ. EDZARDI: Tractatus talmudici "AVODA
SARA." Hamburg, 1705.
JACOBI ECKER: "Der Judenspiegel im Lichte der Wahrheit,"
(The jewish Mirror in the Light of Truth). Paderborn, 1884.
AUGUST ROHLING: Die Polemik und das Manschenopfer des
rabbinismus. (The Polemics and Human Sacrifice of rabbinism). Paderborn,
* * * * *
I have only used the works of those who are held in the
highest esteem by the jews themselves, and to whom the jews appeal when
disputing with Christians, by quoting impartially the opinions of these
learned men.(23) Their great
diligence in quoting from the texts of books which I was able to examine,
has been a proof to me that I used the same diligence even in quoting from
less known sources to which they have much greater access than I.
(23) ". . . The holy Christian religion has no need
of false testimony, nor is it helped in any way by such." I. C. Wagens,
in Sota, p. 298.
<<< --- <<< --- >>>
PART ONE - THE TEACHING OF THE talmud CONCERNING CHRISTIANS
FIRST we shall see what the talmud teaches about Jesus
Christ, the founder of Christianity; and secondly, about his followers,
CHAPTER I - JESUS CHRIST IN THE talmud
Many passages in the talmudic books treat of the birth,
life, death and teachings of Jesus Christ. He is not always referred to
by the same name, however, but is diversely called "That Man,"
"A Certain One," "The Carpenter's Son," "The One
Who Was Hanged," etc.
Article I.— CONCERNING THE NAMES OF JESUS CHRIST
1. The real name of Christ in Hebrew is Jeschua Hanotsri—Jesus
the Nazarene. He is called Notsri from the city of Nazareth in which
he was brought up. Thus in the talmud Christians also are called Notsrim—Nazarenes.
Since the word Jeschua means "Savior," the name
Jesus rarely occurs in jewish books.(1) It
is almost always abbreviated to Jeschu, which is maliciously taken
as if it were composed of the initial letters of the three words Immach
SCHemo Vezikro—"May his name and memory be blotted out."(2)
(1) ex. gr. in Maiene ieschua, fol. 66b
(2) cf. I. Buxtorf in Abbrev. Jeschu: "The jews among themselves
do not say Jeschu, but Isschu, so nearly corresponding to
the words of this curse. When talking to a certain jew about this some
years ago he told me that it not only meant this, but also Jeschu Scheker
(liar) Utoebah (and abomination). Who would not be deeply horrified
at this? This jew lived at Frankfort and at Hanover and had travelled all
over the world. When he saw how this horrified me, his faith in judaism
began to weaken, for he was not adverse to the Christian faith and had
often discussed it with me and Dr. Amando Polano. I also discovered here
and there two other secret words from the jewish Cabala which have to do
with this name. It is well known that the Israelites are often warned in
their sacred writings to shun the worship of Elohe Nekhar—strange
gods or god. What does Elohe Nekhar really mean? By the numbering method
of the Gammatria these letters equal 316, which taken together make the
word Jeschu. This is found at the end of the book Abhkath Rokhel.
They therefore teach that to dishonor God by the worship of Elohe Nekhar
is the same as to dishonor him by the worship of Jeschu. Behold
the malice of the serpent! Antonius also found a marginal note in a book
about the jewish faith and religion. In a jewish prayer book there is a
certain prayer beginning with Alenu... Formerly the wording contained
certain things which were afterwards deleted for fear of the Christians,
but the space remains vacant to warn children and adults that something
is omitted there. The deleted words were hammischtachavim lehebhel varik
umitpallelim lelo ioschia "Those who bow down exhibit vanity and
foolishness and adore him who cannot save." This is generally said
about idols, but is secretly meant for Jesus whose name is here signified
by the letters..."
2. In the talmud Christ is called Otho Isch—'That
man,' i.e. the one who is known to all. In the tract Abhodah
Zarah, 6a, we read:
"He is called a Christian who follows the false teachings
of that man, who taught them to celebrate the feast on the first
day of the Sabbath, that is, to worship on the first day after the Sabbath"
3. Elsewhere he is simply called Peloni—"A
Certain One." In Chagigah, 4b, we read:
"Mary...the mother of a certain one, of whom it is
related in Schabbath..." (104b)
That this Mary is none other than the mother of Jesus
will be shown later.
4. Out of contempt, Jesus is also called Naggar bar
naggar—'the carpenter son of a carpenter',(3)
also Ben charsch etaim—'the son of a wood worker.'
(3) cf. Abhodah Zarah, 50b.
5. He is also called Talui—'the one who was hanged.'
rabbi Samuel, the son of Meir, in the Hilch. Akum of Maimonides,
refers to the fact that it was forbidden to take part in the Christian
feasts of Christmas and Easter because they were celebrated on account
of him who was hanged. And rabbi Aben Ezra, in a commentary on Genes.(XXVII,
39) also calls him Talui, whose image the Emperor Constantine reproduced
on his banner. "...in the days of Constantine, who made a change of
religion and placed the figure of the one who was hanged on his
Article II.—THE LIFE OF CHRIST
The talmud teaches that Jesus Christ was illegitimate
and was conceived during menstruation; that he had the soul of Esau; that
he was a fool, a conjurer, a seducer; that he was crucified, buried in
hell and set up as an idol ever since by his followers.
1. ILLEGITIMATE AND CONCEIVED DURING MENSTRUATION
The following is narrated in the Tract Kallah,
"Once when the Elders were seated at the Gate, two
young men passed by, one of whom had his head covered, the other with his
head bare. rabbi Eliezer remarked that the one in his bare head was illegitimate,
a mamzer. rabbi Jehoschua said that he was conceived during menstruation,
ben niddah. rabbi Akibah, however, said that he was both. Whereupon
the others asked rabbi Akibah why he dared to contradict his colleagues.
He answered that he could prove what he said. He went therefore to the
boy's mother whom he saw sitting in the market place selling vegetables
and said to her: 'My daughter, if you will answer truthfully what I am
going to ask you, I promise that you will be saved in the next life.' She
demanded that he would swear to keep his promise, and rabbi Akibah did
so—but with his lips only, for in his heart he invalidated his oath. Then
he said: 'Tell me, what kind of son is this of yours'? To which she replied:
'The day I was married I was having menstruation, and because of this my
husband left me. But an evil spirit came and slept with me and from this
intercourse my son was born to me.' Thus it was proved that this young
man was not only illegitimate but also conceived during the menstruation
of his mother. And when his questioners heard this they declared: 'Great
indeed was rabbi Akibah when he corrected his Elders'! And they exclaimed:
'Blessed be the Lord God of Israel who revealed his secret to rabbi Akibah
the son of Joseph' "!
That the jews understand this story to refer to Jesus
and his mother, Mary, is clearly demonstrated in their book Toldath
Jeschu—'The Generations of Jesus'—where the birth of our Savior
is narrated in almost the same words.(4)
(4) cf. Synag. Jud. Chap. VIII, p. 133.
Another story of this kind is narrated in Sanhedrin,
"Of all who are guilty of death by the Law, he alone(5)
is caught by a ruse. How is it done? They light a
candle in an inner room and place witnesses in an adjoining room outside
where they can see him and hear his voice, but where they cannot be seen
by him. Then the one whom he tried to seduce says to him 'Please repeat
here privately what you told me before.' If the seducer repeats what he
said, the others ask him 'But how shall we leave our God who is in heaven
and serve idols?' If the seducer repents, then all is well. But if he says
'This is our duty and it is right for us to do so,' then the witnesses
outside, who have heard him, bring him before the judge and stone him to
death. This is what they did to the son of Stada in Lud, and they hanged
him on the eve of the Passover. For this son of Stada was the son of Pandira.
For rabbi Chasda tells us that Pandira was the husband(6)
of Stada, his mother, and he lived during the time Paphus the son of Jehuda.
But his mother was stada, Mary of Magdala (a ladies' hairdresser) who,
as it is said in Pumbadita, deserted her husband."
(5) namely, a seducer, who tries to seduce another to
worship an idol and to join a false religion.
(6) A marginal note says this son of Stada was called after his father,
not his mother, although he was illegitimate.
The meaning of this is that his Mary was called Stada,
that is, a prostitute, because, according to what was taught at Pumbadita,
she left her husband and commited adultery. This is also recorded in the
Jerusalem talmud(7) and by Maimonides.(7)
(7) cf. Sanhedrin, chap. VII near the end, and
Iebhammoth, the last chap.
That the mention here is of Mary, the mother of Jesus,
is verified in the Tract Chagigah, 4b:
"When rabbi Bibhai was visited once by the Death
Angel (the devil), the latter said to his assistant: 'Go and bring to me
Mary the hairdresser' (that is, kill her). He went and brought Mary the
children's hairdresser—in place of the other Mary."
A marginal note explains this passage as follows:
"This story of Mary the Ladies' hairdresser happened
under the Second Temple. She was the mother of Peloni, 'that man,' as he
is called in the tract Schabbath," (fol. 104b).
In Schabbath the passage referred to says:
"rabbi Eliezer said to the Elders: 'Did not the son
of Stada practice Egyptian magic by cutting it into his flesh?' They replied:
'He was a fool, and we do not pay attention to what fools do. The son of
Stada, Pandira's son, etc.' " as above in Sanhedrin, 67a.
This magic of the son of Stada is explained as follows
in the book Beth Jacobh, fol. 127 a:
"The Magi, before they left Egypt, took special care
not to put their magic in writing lest other peoples might come to learn
it. But he devised a new way by which he inscribed it on his skin, or made
cuts in his skin and inserted it there and which, when the wounds healed
up, did not show what they meant."(8)
(8) This is treated at greater length in the book Toldath
Jeschu, where it speaks of Jesus as a conjurer, as we shall see further
on. It is also mentioned in the Jerusalem talmud in chap. 12.
"There is little doubt who this Ben Stada was, or
who the jews understood him to be. Although the rabbis in their additions
to the talmud try to hide their malice and say that it is not Jesus Christ,
their deceit is plainly evident, and many things prove that they wrote
and understood all these things about him. In the first place, they also
call him the son of Pandira. Jesus the Nazarene is thus called in other
passages(10) of the talmud where
express mention is made of Jesus the son of Pandira. St. John Damascene(11)
also, in his Genealogy of Christ, mentions Panthera and the Son of Panthera.
"Secondly, this Stada is said to be Mary, and this
Mary the mother of Peloni 'that certain one,' by which without doubt
Jesus is meant. For in this way they were accustomed to cover up his name
because they were afraid to mention it. If we had copies of the original
manuscripts they would certainly prove this. And this also was the name
of the mother of Jesus the Nazarene.
"Thirdly, he is called the Seducer of the People.
The Gospels(12) testify that
Jesus was called this by the jews, and their writings to this day are proof
that they still call him by this name.
"Fourthly, he is called 'the one who was hanged,'
which clearly refers to the crucifixion of Christ, especially since a reference
to the time 'on the eve of the Passover' is added, which coincides with
the time of the crucifixion of Jesus. In Sanhedrin (43a) they wrote
'"On the eve of the Passover they hanged Jesus'
"Fifthly, as to what the Jerusalem talmud says about
the two disciples of the Elders who were sent as witnesses to spy on him,
and who were afterwards brought forward as witnesses against him: This
refers to the two "false witnesses" of whom the Evangelists Matthew(14)
and Luke(15) make mention.
"Sixthly, concerning what they say about the son
of Stada that he practiced Egyptian magical arts by cutting into his flesh:
the same accusation is made against Christ in their hostile book Toldoth
"Lastly, the time corresponds. For it is said that
this son of Stada lived in the days of Paphus the son of Jehuda, who was
a contemporary of rabbi Akibah. Akibah, however, lived at the time of the
Ascension of Christ, and for some time after. Mary is also said to have
lived under the Second Temple. All this clearly proves that they secretly
and blasphemously understand this son of Stada to be Jesus Christ the son
"Other circumstances may seem to contradict this.
But that is nothing new in jewish writings and is done on purpose so that
Christians may not easily detect their trickery."(16)
(9) cf. Lexicon. Jud. in verbo Jeschu.
(10) cf. The Jerusalem talmud, Abhodah Zarah, ch. II, and Schabbath,
ch. XIV, Beth Jacobh, 127a.
(11) Lib. 4
(12) cf. Matt. XXVII, 63
(13) cf. Sanhedrin, 107b
(14) Ch. XXVI, 60-61
(15) Ch. XX, 5
(16) There are jews who themselves confess to this. For instance, in
the book Sepher Juchasin (9b): "The rabbis have always deceived the
Nazarenes by saying that the Jesus of whom the talmud speaks is not the
Jesus Christ of the Christians. They permit themselves this falsehood for
the sake of peace" in Rohling, Die Polemik und das Menschenopfer
des rabbinismus, ut supra.
2. Furthermore, "In the secret books, which are not
permitted to fall easily into the hands of Christians, they say that the
soul of Esau came into Christ, that he was therefore evil and that he was
(17) Synag. Judaica, p. 217; cf. also Buxtorf,
Lexicon in verbo Jeschu.
3. By some he is called a FOOL and INSANE
In Schabbath, 104b:
"They, [the Elders] said to him [Eliezer]: 'He was
a fool, and no one pays attention to fools.'
4. A CONJURER AND A MAGICIAN
In the infamous book Toldoth Jeschu, our Savior
is blasphemed as follows:
"And Jesus said: Did not Isaiah and David, my ancestors,
prophesy about me? The Lord said to me, thou art my son, today I have
begotten thee,(18) etc. Likewise
in another place: The Lord said to my Lord, sit thou at my right hand(19).
Now I ascend to my father who is in heaven and will sit at his right hand,
which you will see with your own eyes. But you, Judas, will never reach
that high(20). Then Jesus pronounced
the great name of God (IHVH) and continued to do so until a wind came and
took him up between earth and sky. Judas also pronounced the name of God
and he likewise was taken up by the wind. In this way they both floated
around in the air to the amazement of the onlookers. Then Judas, again
pronouncing the Divine Name, took hold of Jesus and pushed him down to
earth. But Jesus tried to do the same to Judas and thus they fought together.
And when Judas saw he could not win out over the works of Jesus he pissed
on Jesus, and both thus being unclean they fell to earth; nor could they
use the Divine name again until they had washed themselves."
(18) Ps. II, 7.
(19) Ps. CX, 1.
(20) For it is related that Judas was a competitor of Jesus in the
working of miracles.
Whether those who believe such devilish lies deserve greater
hatred or pity, I cannot say.(21)
(21) Wagenseil, Sota, p. 1049
In another place in the same book it is related that in
the house of the Sanctuary there was a stone which the Patriarch Jacob
anointed with oil.(22) On this
stone were carved the tetragrammatic letters of the Name (IHVH),(23)
and if anyone could learn them he could destroy the world. They therefore
decreed that no one must learn them, and they placed two dogs upon two
iron columns before the Sanctuary so that if anyone should learn them the
dogs would bark at him coming out and he would forget the letters through
fear. Then it is related: "Jesus came and entered, learned the letters
and wrote them down on parchment. Then he cut into the flesh of his thigh
and inserted them there, and having pronounced the name, the wound healed."(24)
(22) cf. Genesis, XXVIII
(23) No one knows how this august name of God is to be read. It is
certain, however, that it was not pronounced Jehovah, although it is thus
commonly pronounced. For the vowels of this tetragrammatum are the vowels
of the name Adonai, and it is thus that the jews read IHVH. Out of reverence,
however, it is never written in their books, with the exception of Sacred
Scripture, but only indicated by ", or Haschem, the name.
(24) Buxtorf. Lexicon
In the Tract Sanhedrin (103a) the words of Psalm
XCI, 10: 'No plague shall come near thy dwelling,' are explained as follows:
"That thou mayest never have a son or a disciple
who will salt his food so much that he destroys his taste in public, like
Jesus the Nazarene."
To salt one's food too much or to destroy one's taste,
is proverbially said of one who corrupts his morals or dishonors himself,
or who falls into heresy and idolatry and openly preaches it to others.
In the same book Sanhedrin (107b) we read:
"Mar said: Jesus seduced, corrupted and destroyed
Finally as punishment for his crimes and impiety, he suffered
an ignominious death by being hanged on a cross on the eve of the Passover
(as we have seen above).
8. BURIED IN HELL
The book Zohar, III, (282), tells us that Jesus died like
a beast and was buried in that "dirt heap...where they throw the dead
bodies of dogs and asses, and where the sons of Esau [the Christians] and
of Ismael [the Turks], also Jesus and Mahommed, uncircumcized and unclean
like dead dogs, are buried."(25)
(25) In the book Synag. Judaica, (Ch. III, p. 75)
is the following: 'He who cuts himself off [namely, who does not believe
blindly in the rabbinical teachings] will suffer the tortures of the damned,
as is decreed in the talmudic law of punishment in the Tract de Repudiis
(Gitt. c5): He who despises the words of the wise men shall be cast into
the dirt heap with the damned." I shudder to repeat that they blasphemously
narrate that our Saviour Jesus Christ, whose name be forever blessed, suffered
this penalty by being cast into Gehenna, although it is contrary to the
traditions and teaching of the Fathers of the Church...
9. WORSHIPPED AS GOD AFTER HIS DEATH BY HIS FOLLOWERS
George El. Edzard, in his book Avoda Sara, quotes
the following words of the commentator on the Hilkoth Akum (V,3)
"In many passages of the talmud mention is made of
Jesus the Nazarene and of his disciples, and that the Gentiles believe
that there is no other God besides him. In the book Chizzuk Emunah,(26)
part I, ch. 36, we read: 'The Christians build up an argument from this
[Zachary XII, 10] and say: Behold how the Prophet testified that
in future ages the jews would lament and weep because they crucified and
killed the Messiah who was sent to them; and to prove that he meant Jesus
the Nazarene, possessing both the divine and human nature, they quote the
words: And they looked upon him whom they transfixed and they wept over
him as a mother over her first born child.' "
(26) cf. Wagens, Sota, p. 69
Maimonides attempts to prove how much Christians err in
worshipping Jesus in his book Hilkoth Melakhim (IX, 4):(27)
"If all the things he did had prospered, if he had
rebuilt the Sanctuary in its place, and had gathered together the dispersed
tribes of Israel, then he would certainly be the Messiah...But if so far
he has not done so and if he was killed, then it is clear he was not the
Messiah whom the Law tells us to expect. He was similar to all the good
and upright rulers of the House of David who died, and whom the Holy and
Blessed Lord raised up for no other reason but to prove to many, as it
is said (in Dan. XI, 35): And some of them who understand shall
fall, to try and to purge them and to make them white, even till the end
of time, because the appointed time is not yet. Daniel also prophesised
about Jesus the Nazarene who thought he was the Christ, and who was put
to death by the judgment of the Senate: (Dan. V.14): ...and the robbers
of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they
shall fail. What could be plainer? For all the Prophets said that the
Christ would set Israel free, would bring it salvation, restore its dispersed
peoples and confirm their laws. But he was the cause of the destruction
of Israel and caused the rest of them to be dispersed and humiliated, so
that the Law was changed and the greater part of the world was seduced
to worship another God. Truly no one can understand the designs of the
Creator, nor are his ways our ways. For all that has been built up by Jesus
the Nazarene, and by the Turks who came after him, tend only to prepare
the way for the coming of Christ the King, and to prepare the whole world
equally for the service of the Lord, as it is said: For then I shall
give a clean mouth to all peoples that all may call upon the name of the
Lord, and bow down in unison before him.(28)
How is this being accomplished? Already the whole world is filled with
the praise of Christ, the Law and the Commandments, and his praises have
spread to far distant lands and to peoples whose hearts and bodies are
uncircumcized. These discuss with one another about the Law that was destroyed—some
saying that the commandments were once true, but have ceased to exist;
others that there is a great mystery about it, that the Messiah-King has
come and that their doctrine has revealed it. But when the Christ truly
comes and is successful, and is raised up and exalted, then everything
will be changed and these things will be shown to be false and vain."
(27) Ibidem, p. 346
(28) Sophon, III, 9
10. AN IDOL
In the Tract Abhodah Zarah, (21a Toseph),
"It is of importance to inquire the reasons why men
nowadays even sell and rent their houses to Gentiles. Some say this is
legal because it is said in Tosephta: No one shall rent his house
to a gentile either here [in the land of Israel] or elsewhere because it
is known that he will bring an idol into it. It is nevertheless allowed
to rent them stables, barns and lodging houses, even though it is known
that they will bring idols into them. The reason is because a distinction
can be made between a place into which an idol will be carried in order
to leave it there permanently, and a place where it will not be left permanently,
in which case it is allowed. And since the gentiles, among whom we now
live, do not bring their idol into their homes to leave it there permanently,
but only for a time—while someone is dead in the house or when someone
is dying, nor do they even perform any religious rites there—it
is therefore permitted to sell and rent them houses."
rabbi Ascher, in his Commentary on Abhodah Zarah
(83d) speaks not less clearly on this matter:
"Today it is permitted to rent houses to Gentiles
because they bring their idol into them only for a time, when somebody
is sick." And in the same place he says 'Today they have a practice
of incensing their idol.' "
All this, and much more like it, proves beyond a doubt
that when the rabbis speak of the idols of the Gentiles among whom they
lived at that time, when no idols were worshipped, they clearly meant the
Christian "idol," namely, the image of Christ on the crucifix
and the Holy Communion.
NOTE ABOUT THE CROSS
In jewish writings there is no directly corresponding
word for the Christian Cross. The cross T on which those condemned to death
were crucified, was called Tau by the Phoenicians and the Hebrews,
and this name and sign for it was afterwards taken over into the alphabet
of the jews and of the Greeks and the Romans. The Cross honored by the
Christians, however, is called by the following names:
1. Tsurath Haattalui—the image who was hanged.(29)
2. Elil—vanity, idol.
3. Tselem—image. Hence the Crusaders in jewish books are called
Tsalmerim (ein Tsalmer)
4. Scheti Veerebh—warp and woof, which is taken from the textile
5. Kokhabh—star; on account of the four rays emanating from
6. Pesila—a sculpture, a carven idol.
(29) Aben Ezra in Genes. XXVII, 39
But wherever it is mentioned it is always in the sense
of an idol or of something despicable, as can be seen from the following
In Orach Chaiim, 113,8:
"If a jew when praying should meet a Christian [Akum]
carrying a star [a crucifix] in his hand, even if he has come to
a place in his prayer where it is necessary to bow down to worship God
in his heart, he must not do so lest he should seem to bow down before
In Iore Dea, 150,2:
"Even if a jew should get a splinter in his foot
in front of an idol, or if he should drop his money before it, he must
not stoop down to remove the splinter or to gather up his money lest he
should seem to adore it. But he should either sit down or turn his back
or his side to the idol and then remove the splinter."
But whenever it is not possible for a jew to turn away
like this, the following rule must be observed (in Iore Dea, 3,
"It is not permitted to bow down or to remove one's
hat before princes or priests who wear a cross on their dress, as is their
custom. Care must be taken, however, not to be noticed in failing to do
so. For instance, one can throw some coins on the ground and stoop down
to pick them up before they pass by. In this way it is permitted to bow
down or to remove one's hat before them."
A distinction is also made between a cross which is venerated
and a cross which is worn around the neck as a souvenir or as an ornament.
The former is to be regarded as an idol, but not necessarily the latter.
In Iore Dea, 141, 1, Hagah, it says:
"The image of a cross, before which they bow down,
is to be treated as an idol, and it is not to be used until it is destroyed.
However, a 'warp and woof' if hung around the neck as a souvenir is not
to be regarded as an idol and can be used."
The sign of the cross made with the hand, by which Christians
are wont to bless themselves, is called in jewish "the moving of the
fingers here and there" (hinc et hinc).(30)
(30) cf. Kad. Hakkem, 20a
Article III. — THE TEACHINGS OF CHRIST
The Seducer and Idolator could teach nothing but falsehood
and heresy which was irrational and impossible to observe.
In Abhodah Zarah (6a) it says:
"A Nazarene is one who follows the false teachings
of that man who taught them to worship on the first day of the Sabbath."
In the same book Abhodah Zar. (Ch.I, 17a Toseph)
mention is made of the heresy of James. A little further on (27b) we learn
that this James was none other than the disciple of Jesus:
"...James Sekhanites, one of the disciples of Jesus,
of whom we spoke in chapter 1."
But James taught, not his own doctrine, but that of Jesus.
3. IMPOSSIBLE TO OBSERVE
The author of Nizzachon(31)
argues as follows on this point:
"A written law of the Christians is: If a jew strike
you on one cheek, turn the other also to him and do not in any way return
the blow.(32) And ch. VI, v.
27 says: Love your enemies; do good to them who hate you; bless them
who curse you and pray for those who do you harm; unto him who strikes
you on one cheek offer him the other. To him who takes away thy cloak do
not forbid him to take thy coat also, etc. The same is found in Matthew
ch. V, v.39. But I have never seen any Christian keep this law, nor did
Jesus himself behave as he taught others to do. For we find in John
ch XVIII, v22, that when someone struck him on the face, he did not
turn the other cheek, but became angry on account of this one stroke and
asked 'Why do you strike me'? Likewise in the Acts of the Apostles,
ch.XXIII, v. 3, we read: that when the High Priest ordered them that stood
by to strike him on the mouth, Paul did not turn the other cheek; he cursed
him saying 'God shall smite thee thou whited wall, etc.' This is contrary
to their beliefs and destroys the foundation upon which their religion
rests, for they boast that the law of Jesus is easy to observe. If Paul
himself, who may be called the Dispenser of Jesus, could not preserve the
precept of Jesus, who among the others who believe in him can prove to
me that he can do so?"
(31) cf. Wagens. Sota, p. 822
(32) A corruption of the text in Luke ch. VI, 29
The author, however, who had the Gospels and the Acts
of the Apostles under his hand, could not have failed to understand in
what sense Christ commanded his followers to turn the other cheek to him
who would strike them, since in another place he commanded his followers
to cut off a hand or an arm, and to pluck out an eye if these should scandalize
them. No one who has had the least acquaintance with the Holy Scriptures
ever thought that these commands should be taken literally . Only deep
malice and ignorance of the times in which Jesus lived can explain why
the jews, even to this day, use these passages to detract from the teachings
of Jesus Christ.(33)
(33) cf. K. Lippe, Der talmudjude vor dem Katholisch-protestantisch
orthdoxen Dreirichter-Kollegium, p. 16, 1884
<<< --- <<< --- >>>
CHAPTER II — THE CHRISTIANS
There are three things to be considered in this chapter:
1. The names by which Christians are called in the talmud.
2. What kind of people the talmud pictures Christians to be.
3. What the talmud says about the religious worship of the Christians.
Article I. - The Names Given to Christians in the talmud
As in our languages Christians take their name from Christ,
so in the language of the talmud Christians are called Notsrim,
from Jesus the Nazarene. But Christians are also called by the names used
in the talmud to designate all non-jews: Abhodah Zarah, Akum,
Obhde Elilim, Minim, Nokhrim, Edom, Amme
Haarets, Goim, Apikorosim, Kuthrim.
1. Abhodah Zarah—Strange worship, idolatry. The
talmudic Tract on Idolatry is thus entitled: Obhde Abhodah Zarah—Idol
Worshippers. That Abhodah Zarah really means the cult of idols is
clear from the talmud itself: 'Let Nimrod come and testify that Abraham
was not a server of Abhodah Zarah.' But in the days of Abraham there
existed no strange cult either of the Turks or the Nazarenes, but only
the worship of the true God and idolatry. In Schabbath (ibid.
82a), it says:
"rabbi Akibah says: How do we know that Abhodah
Zarah, like an unclean woman, contaminates those who subscribe to it?
Because Isaiah says: Thou shalt cast them away like a menstruation cloth;
and shalt say unto it, Get thee hence."
In the first part of this verse mention is made of idols
made from gold and silver.
The learned Maimonides also clearly demonstrates that
the jews regarded Christians as Abhodah Zarah. In Perusch
(78c) he says:
"And be it known that Christian people who follow
Jesus, although their teachings vary, are all worshippers of idols (Abhodah
2. Akum—This word is made up of the initial letters
of the words Obhde Kokhabkim U Mazzaloth—worshippers of stars and
planets. It was thus that the jews formerly styled the Gentiles who lacked
all knowledge of the true God. Now, however, the word Akum in jewish
books, especially in the Schulkhan Arukh, is applied to Christians.
This is evident from numerous passages:
In the Orach Chaiim (113,8) those who use a cross
are called Akum. In the Iore Dea (148, 5, 12), those who
celebrate the feasts of Christmas and New Year, eight days afterwards,
are called worshippers of the stars and planets:
"Thus if a gift is sent to the Akum, even
in these times, on the eighth day after Christmas, which they call the
New Year," etc.
3. Obhde Elilim—Servers of idols. This name has
the same meaning as Akum. Non-jews are frequently called by this
name. In the Orach Chaiim, for example (215, 5), it says:
"A blessing should not be pronounced over incense
which belongs to the servers of idols."
But at the same time when the Schulkhan Arukh was
written there were no worshippers of the stars and planets (Akum);
there were no 'servers of idols' among those who lived with the jews. Thus,
for example, the author of the Commentary on the Schulkhan Arukh
(entitled Magen Abraham), rabbi Calissensis who died in Poland in
1775, in note 8, on No. 244 of the Orach Chaiim (where it is allowed
to finish a work on the Sabbath with the help of an Akum) says:
"Here in our city the question is raised about the price of hiring
worshippers of the stars and planets who sweep the public streets when
they work on the Sabbath."(34)
(34) cf. Ecker, Judensp. p. 17
4. Minim—Heretics. In the talmud those who possess
books called the Gospels are heretics. Thus in Schabbath (116a)
"rabbi Meir calls the books of the Minim Aven
Gilaion [iniquitous volumes] because they call them Gospels."
5. Edom—Edomites. rabbi Aben Ezra, when he speaks
about the Emperor Constantine who changed his religion and placed the image
of him who was hanged on his banner, adds:
"Rome therefore is called the Kingdom of the Edomites."
And rabbi Bechai, in his Kad Hakkemach (fol. 20a,
on Isaiah, ch. LXVI, 17) writes:
"They are called Edomites who move their fingers
'here and here' " (who make the sign of the cross).
Likewise rabbi Bechai, commenting on the words of Isaiah
(loc. cit.), "those who eat the flesh of swine" adds:
"These are the Edomites." rabbi Kimchi, however, calls them "Christians."
And rabbi Abarbinel, in his work Maschima Ieschua (36d) says: "The
Nazarenes are Romans, the sons of Edom."
6. Goi—Race, or people. The jews also call a man
a Goi—a gentile; they call a gentile woman a Goiah. Sometimes,
but very rarely, Israelites are called by this name.(35)
It is mostly applied to non-jews, or idolators. In jewish books which treat
of Idolatry,(36) worshippers
of idols are often called by this single word Goi. For this reason,
in more recent editions of the talmud(37) the
use of the word Goi is purposely avoided and other words for non-jews
(35) ex.gr. Genes. XII, 2; Exod. XIX, 6; Isaiah, I,4.
(36) cf. Abhodah Zarah, and Hilkoth Akum of Maimonides
(37) cf. The Warsaw Edition of 1863
It is well known that in the jewish language, the jews
call Christians among whom they live, Goim. Nor do the jews deny
this. Sometimes in their popular magazines they say that this word means
nothing harmful or evil.(38)
But the contrary can be seen in their books written in the Hebrew language.
For instance, in Choschen Hammischpat (34,22), the name Goi
is used in a depraved sense:
"Traitors and Epicureans and Apostates are worse
(38) cf. Israelita, No. 48, 1891
7. Nokhrim—strangers, foreigners. This name is
used for all who are not jews, and therefore for Christians.
8. Amme Haarets—People of the earth, idiots. There
are some who say(39) that people
of other races are not meant by this, but only crude and uneducated people.
There are passages, however, which leave no doubt about the matter. In
the Holy Scripture, Book of Esra, ch. X, 2, we read: We have
sinned against our God, and have taken strange wives [nokhrioth]
of the people of the earth. That people of the earth denotes
idolators is clear from Zohar, I, 25a: "The People of the earth—Obhde
Abhodah Zarah, idolaters.(40)
(39) cf. Franz Delitzsch, Schachmatt den Blutluhnern,
1883, p. 41
(40) Buxtorf is therefore correct (Lexicon, col. 1626) by translating
Amme haarets as 'gentiles,' which displeases Prof. Delitzsch
9. Basar Vedam—Flesh and blood; carnal men who
are destined to perdition and who can have no communion with God. That
Christians are flesh and blood, is proved from the prayer book:
"Whoever meets a wise and educated Christian can
say: Blessed art thou O Lord, King of the Universe, who dispenseth of thy
wisdom to Flesh and Blood," etc.
Likewise in another prayer, in which they ask God soon
to restore the kingdom of David and to send Elias and the Messiah, etc.,
they ask him to take away their poverty so that they will have no need
to accept gifts from "flesh and blood," nor to trade with them,
nor to seek wages from them.(41)
(41) cf. Synag. Jud. C. XII, p. 257 and 263
10. Apikorosim—Epicureans. All are called by this
name who do not observe God's precepts, as well as all those, even jews
themselves, who express private judgments in matters of faith.(42)
How much more, therefore, Christians!
(42) The jews of Warsaw showed an example of this when,
in 1892, they denounced the editor of the newspaper Hatseflrah because
he dared to say that everything in the talmud was not of the same religious
value nor of the same authority.
11. Kuthim—Samaritans. But since there are no longer
any Samaritans, and since there are many references in recent jewish books
to Samaritans, who can doubt that this does not mean the Christians?
Furthermore, in this matter of naming those who are not
jews, it is to be particularly noted that jewish writings apply these names
indiscriminately and promiscuously when they speak of the same thing, and
almost in the same words. For instance, in the Tract Abhodah Zarah
(25b) the word Goi is employed, but in the Schulkhan Arukh
(Iore Dea 153, 2) Akum is used. Kerithuth (6b) uses
Goim; Jebhammoth (61a) uses Akum; Abhodah Zar.
(2a) uses Obhde Elilim; Thoseph uses Goim and Obhde
Ab., Choschen Ham (Venetian ed.) uses Kuthi; (Slav. ed.)
Akum. And many more instances could be quoted.
Maimonides in his book on Idolatry indiscriminately calls
all the following idolators: Goim, Akum, Obhde Kokhabhim,
Obhde Elilim, etc.
Article II. - What the talmud Teaches About Christians
In the preceding chapter we saw what the jews think of
the Founder of the Christian religion, and how much they despise his name.
This being so, it would not be expected that they would have any better
opinion about those who follow Jesus the Nazarene. In fact, nothing more
abominable can be imagined than what they have to say about Christians.
They say that they are idolaters, the worst kind of people, much worse
than the Turks, murderers, fornicators, impure animals, like dirt, unworthy
to be called men, beasts in human form, worthy of the name of beasts, cows,
asses, pigs, dogs, worse than dogs; that they propagate after the manner
of beasts, that they have diabolic origin, that their souls come from the
devil and return to the devil in hell after death; and that even the body
of a dead Christian is nothing different from that of an animal.
Since Christians follow the teachings of that man,
whom the jews regard as a Seducer and an Idolater, and since they worship
him as God, it clearly follows that they merit the name of idolaters, in
no way different from those among whom the jews lived before the birth
of Christ, and whom they taught should be exterminated by every possible
This is best demonstrated by the names they give to Christians,
and by the unmistakable words of Maimonides which prove that all who bear
the name of Christian are idolaters.(42a)
And anyone who examines jewish books which speak of the "Worshippers
of the Stars and Planets," "Epicureans," "Samaritans,"
etc., cannot but conclude that these idolaters are none other than Christians.
The Turks are always called "Ismaelites," never idolaters.
(42a) Vide Infra. ch. II, p. 42
2. CHRISTIANS WORSE THAN THE TURKS
Maimonides in Hilkoth Maakhaloth (ch. IX) says:
"It is not permitted to drink the wine of a stranger
who becomes a convert,(43) that
is, one who accepts the seven precepts of Noah, but is permitted to gain
some benefit from it. It is allowed to leave wine alone with him, but not
to place it before him. The same is permitted in the case of all gentiles
who are not idolaters, such as the Turks [Ismaelites]. A jew, however,
is not permitted to drink their wine, although he may use it to his own
advantage. All the best known rabbis agree on this. But since Christians
are idolaters, it is not allowed even to use their wine to advantage."
(43) There are two kinds of jewish converts; some are
called Gere Tsedekh, converts to justice, who embrace the jewish
religion and accept the whole law of Moses, not for external reasons only,
but for the glory of God and for the sake of true religion; others are
called Gere Toschabh, convert strangers, who are neither circumcized
nor baptized, and who observe only certain laws, namely those given to
the sons of Noah, which are: (1) Justice; (2) Praise of God; (3) Shunning
idolatry; (4) about fornication; (5) the shedding of blood; (6) Rape; (7)
not touching an animal's organ. Vide, Sanhed, 56a.
In Abhodah Zarah (22a) it says:
"A jew must not associate himself with gentiles because
they are given to the shedding of blood."
Likewise in Iore Dea (153,2):
"An Israelite must not associate himself with the
Akum [Christians] because they are given to the shedding of blood."
In the Abhodah Zarah (25b) it says:
"The rabbis taught: If a Goi joins an Israelite
on the road, he [the jew] should walk on his right side.(44)
rabbi Ismael, the son of rabbi Jochanan the nephew of Beruka, says: if
he carries a sword, let the jew walk on his right side.(45)
If the Goi carries a stick, the jew should walk on his left side.(46)
If he is climbing a hill or descending a steep incline, the jew must not
go in front with the Goi behind, but the jew must go behind and
the Goi in front, nor must he stoop down in front of him for fear
the Goi might crack his skull. And if he should ask the jew how
far he is going, he should pretend he is going a long way, as Jacob our
Father said to the impious Esau: Until I come to my Lord in Seir
(Gen. XXXIII, 14-17), but it adds: Jacob set out for Sukoth."
(44) So that if the Gentile should raise his hand to strike
him, the jew can more quickly ward off the blow with his right hand.
(45) So that the jew's right hand be nearer to the Gentile's sword,
and if he tries to draw it, the jew can obstruct his right hand.
(46) So that the jew be nearer to the Gentile's right hand which holds
the stick, and so may be able to grasp it quickly with his left hand.
In Orach Chaiim (20,2) it says:
"Do not sell your overcoat (Talith) with the
fringes to an Akum, lest he should join up with a jew on the road
and kill him. It is also forbidden to exchange or lend your overcoat with
a Gentile, except for a short time and when there is nothing to be feared
In the Abhodah Zarah (15b) it says:
"Animals of the masculine sex must not be left in
the barns of the Gentiles with their men, nor animals of the feminine sex
with their women; much less must animals of the feminine sex be left with
their men and of the masculine sex with their women. Nor must sheep be
left to the care of their shepherds; nor must any intercourse be had with
them; nor must children be given into their care to learn to read or to
learn a trade."
In the same tract a little farther on (22a) it is explained
why animals must not be allowed in the barns of Gentiles, and why jews
are not permitted to have sexual intercourse with them:
"Animals must not be allowed to go near the Goim,
because they are suspected of having intercourse with them. Nor must women
cohabit with them because they are over-sexed."
In fol. 22b of the same book the reason is given why animals
especially of the feminine sex must be kept away from their women:
"...because when Gentile men come to their neighbors'
houses to commit adultery with their wives and do not find them at home,
they fornicate with the sheep in the barns instead. And sometimes even
when their neighbors' wives are at home, they prefer to fornicate with
the animals; for they love the sheep of the Israelites more than their
It is for the same reason that animals are not to be entrusted
to Goi shepherds, nor children to their educators.
The talmud gives two reasons why the Goim are unclean:
because they eat unclean things, and because they themselves have not been
cleansed (from original sin) on Mount Sinai. In Schabbath, (145b)
"Why are the Goim unclean? Because they eat
abominable things and animals that crawl on their belly."
Likewise in Abhodah Zarah, 22b:
"Why are the Goim unclean? Because they were
not present at Mount Sinai. For when the serpent entered into Eve he infused
her with uncleanness. But the jews were cleansed from this when they stood
on Mount Sinai; the Goim, however, who were not on Mount Sinaim
were not cleansed."
6. COMPARED TO DUNG
"When ten persons are praying together in one place
and they say Kaddisch, or Kedoschah, anyone, even though
he does not belong there, may respond Amen. There are some, however, who
say that no dung or Akum must be present."
In Iore Dea (198, 48) Hagah, it says:
"When jewish women come out of a bath they must take
care to meet a friend first, and not something unclean or a Christian.
For if so, a woman, if she wants to keep holy, should go back and bathe
It is worthy of note that the following list of unclean
things is given in Biur Hetib, a commentary on the Schulchan
"A woman must wash herself again if she sees any
unclean thing, such as a dog, an ass, or People of the Earth; a Christian
(Akum), a camel,(47) a
pig, a horse, and a leper."
(47) In the Vilna ed. of 1873, camel is omitted, since
there are no camels there; but People of the Earth, and Akum
7. NOT LIKE MEN, BUT BEASTS
In Kerithuth (6b p. 78) it says:
"The teaching of the rabbis is: He who pours oil
over a Goi, and over dead bodies is freed from punishment. This
is true for an animal because it is not a man.(48)
But how can it be said that by pouring oil over a Goi one is freed
from punishment, since a Goi is also a man? But this is not true,
for it is written: Ye are my flock, the flock of my pasture are men
(Ezechiel, XXXIV, 31). You are thus called men, but the Goim
are not called men."
(48) The same holds for the dead body of any man.
In the Tract Makkoth (7b) he is said to be guilty
of killing "except when, if intending to kill an animal he kills a
man by mistake, or intending to kill a Goi, he kills an Israelite."
In Orach Chaiim (225,10) it says:
"He who sees beautiful creatures, even though it
be an Akum or an animal, let him say 'Blessed art thou Our Lord
God, King of the Universe, who has placed such things on the earth!' "
8. THEY DIFFER ONLY IN FORM FROM BEASTS
In Midrasch Talpioth (fol. 225d) it says:
"God created them in the form of men for the glory
of Israel. But Akum were created for the sole end of ministering
unto them [the jews] day and night. Nor can they ever be relieved from
this service. It is becoming to the son of a king [an Israelite] that animals
in their natural form, and animals in the form of human beings should minister
We can quote here also what is said in Orach Chaiim,
"If pigs are to be pitied when they suffer from disease,
because their intestines are similar to ours, how much more should the
Akum be pitied when thus affected."(49)
(49) In Taanith (21b) it says: "How much more
the Nokhrim since they are similar to Israelites."
In Zohar, II, (64b) it says:
"...People who worship idols, and who are called
cow and ass, as it is written: I have a cow and an ass..."
rabbi Bechai, in his book Kad Hakkemach, ch. I,
beginning with the word Geulah—redemption—referring to Psalm
80, v. 13: The boar out of the wood doth waste it, says:
"The letter ain is dropped [suspended] the
same as these worshippers are followers of him who was suspended."
Buxtorf (Lex.) says:
"By wild pig the author here means the Christians
who eat pork and, like pigs, have destroyed the vineyard of Israel, the
City of Jerusalem, and who believe in the 'suspended' Christ. Else the
letter ain is dropped in this word because they, as worshippers
of Christ who was hanged, are also dropped."
rabbi Edels, in commenting on Kethuboth (110b)
"The Psalmist compares the Akum to the unclean
beast in the woods."
10. WORSE THAN ANIMALS
rabbi Schelomo Iarchi (Raschi), famous jewish commentator,
explaining the law of Moses (Deuter. XIV, 21) forbidding the eating
of meat of wounded animals, but which must be given to the 'stranger in
thy gates,' or which, according to Exodus (XXII, 30) is to be thrown
to the dogs, has this to say:
"...for he is like a dog. Are we to take to word
'dog' here literally? By no means. For the text in speaking of dead bodies
says, Or thou mayest sell it to an alien. This applies much more
to the meat of wounded animals, for which it is permitted to accept payment.
Why therefore does the Scripture say it may be thrown to 'dogs?' In order
to teach you that a dog is to be more respected than the Nokhri."
11. THEY PROPAGATE LIKE BEASTS
In the Sanhedrin (74b) Tosephoth, it says:
"The sexual intercourse of a Goi is like to
that of a beast."
And in Kethuboth (3b) it says:
"The seed of a Goi is worth the same as that
of a beast."
Hence it is to be inferred that Christian marriage is
not true marriage.
In Kidduschim (68a), it says:
"...How do we know this? rabbi Huna says: You can
read: Remain here with the ass, that is, with a people like an ass. Hence
it appears that they are not capable of contracting marriage."
And in Eben Haezer (44, 8):
"If a jew enters into marriage with an Akum
(Christian), or with his servant, the marriage is null. For they are not
capable of entering into matrimony. Likewise if an Akum or a servant
enter into matrimony with a jew, the marriage is null."
In Zohar (II, 64b) it says:
"rabbi Abba says: If only idolaters alone had sexual
intercourse, the world would not continue to exist. Hence we are taught
that a jew should not give way to those infamous robbers. For if these
propagate in greater numbers, it will be impossible for us to continue
to exist because of them. For they give birth to sucklings the same as
12. CHILDREN OF THE DEVIL
In Zohar (I, 28b) we read:
"Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast
of the field, etc. (Genes. III, 1.) 'More subtle' that is towards
evil; 'than all beasts' that is, the idolatrous people of the earth. For
they are the children of the ancient serpent which seduced Eve."(50)
(50) This ancient serpent, the parent of Christians, that
is, the devil in the form of a serpent, is called, Sammael (cf. Targum
Iobi, XXVIII, 7). rabbi Maimonides writes in More (Bk. II, ch.
30) that Sammael took the form of a serpent and seduced Eve. He is also
called the 'Angel of Death,' and 'the Head of the assembly of evil ones.'
Debbarim Rabba (208c) calls him "Sammael the impious one, "the
prince of all devils." rabbi Bechai (in Mikkets) calls him
"The Impious Sammael, the Prince of Rome."
The best argument used by the jews to prove that Christians
are of the race of the devil is the fact that they are uncircumcized. The
foreskin on non-jews prevents them from being called the children of the
Most High God. For by circumcision the name of God—Schaddai—is completed
in the flesh of a circumcized jew. The form of the letter Isch is
in his nostrils, the letter Daleth in his (bent) arm, and ain
appears in his sexual organ by circumcision. In non-circumcized gentiles,
therefore, such as Christians, there are only two letters, Isch
and Daleth, which make the word Sched, which means devil.
They are, therefore, children of the Sched, the devil.(51)
(51) cf. Sanhedrin Jud. p. 88
13. THE SOULS OF CHRISTIANS ARE EVIL AND UNCLEAN
The teaching of the jews is that God created two natures,
one good and the other evil, or one nature with two sides, one clean and
the other unclean. From the unclean side, called Keliphah—rind,
or scabby crust—the souls of Christians are said to have come.
In Zohar (I, 131a) it says:
"Idolatrous people, however, since they exist, befoul
the world, because their souls come out of the unclean side."
And in Emek Hammelech (23d) it says:
"The souls of the impious come from Keliphah,
which is death and the shadows of death."
Zohar (I, 46b, 47a) goes on to show that this unclean
side is the left side, from which the souls of Christians come:
"And he created every living thing, that is,
the Israelites, because they are the children of the Most High God, and
their holy souls come out from Him. But where do the souls of the idolatrous
gentiles come from? rabbi Eliezer says: from the left side, which makes
their souls unclean. They are therefore all unclean and they pollute all
who come in contact with them."
14. AFTER DEATH THEY GO DOWN TO HELL
The Elders teach that Abraham sits at the gate of Gehenna
and prevents any circumcized person from entering there; but that all the
uncircumcized go down to hell.
In Rosch Haschanach (17a) it says:
"Heretics and Epicureans and Traitors go down into
15. THE FATE OF DEAD CHRISTIANS
The bodies of Christians after death are called by the
odious name of Pegarim, which is the word used in Holy Scripture
for the dead bodies of the damned and of animals, but never for the pious
dead who are called Metim. Thus the Schulchan Arukh orders
that a dead Christian must be spoken of in the same way as a dead animal.
In Iore Dea (377,1) it says:
"Condolences must not be offered to anyone on account
of the death of his servants or handmaidens. All that may be said is 'May
God restore your lost one, the same as we say to a man who has lost a cow
or an ass.' "
Nor must Christians be avoided for seven days after they
have buried someone, as the law of Moses commands, since they are not men;
for the burial of an animal does not pollute one.
In Iebhammoth (61a) it says:
"The Nokhrim are not rendered unclean by a
burial. For it is said: Ye are my sheep, the sheep of my pasture; ye
are men. You are thus called men, but not the Nokhrim."
Article III. - About Christian Rites and Worship
Since Christians are regarded by the jews as idolators,
all their forms of worship are idolatrous. Their priests are called priests
of Baal; their temples are called houses of lies and idolatry, and everything
they contain, such as chalices, statues and books, are regarded as made
for the serving of idols; their prayers, both private and public, are sinful
and offensive to God; and their festivals are called days of evil.
The talmud speaks of priests, the ministers of Christian
worship, as idolatrous and belonging to the god Baal. They are also called
Komarim—Soothsayers; and also Galachim, the shaved, because
they shave their heads, particularly the monks.
In Abhodah Zarah (14b) Toseph, it says:
"It is forbidden to sell the books of the prophets
to the soothsayers, since they may use them for their evil worship in their
idolatrous temples. Those who do so sin against the law which forbids us
to place an obstacle in the way of a blind person. It is also forbidden
to sell them to a Christian who is not shaved, for he is sure to give or
sell them to one of them who is shaved."
2. CHRISTIAN CHURCHES
A place of Christian worship is called (1) Beth Tiflah,
a house of vanity and foolishness,(52) in
place of Beth Tefilah, a house of prayer; (2) Beth Abhodha Zarah,
a House of Idolatry; (3) Beth Hatturaph Schel Letsim, a house of
(52) Wagenseil (in Sota, p. 497) says that Buxtorf,
in translating the word Tiflah as foolishness or vanity, did not go far
enough. For this name which is applied to a Christian Church really means
a brothel or whorehouse.
(53) cf. Sepher Zerubbabel, Constantinople edit.
In Abhodah Zarah (78) the Perusch of Maimonides,
"Be it known to you that it is beyond a doubt forbidden
by law to pass through a Christian city in which there is a house of vanity,
that is, a house of idolatry; much more to live therein. But we today,
as punishment for our sins, are subject to them, and are forced to live
in their countries, as it was foretold in Deuteronomy (IV, 28):
And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men's hands, of wood and
stone....Thus if it is allowed as predicted to pass around a Christian
city, much more so must we pass around an idolatrous temple; nor is it
allowed us even to look inside and above all to enter in."
A jew is forbidden not only to enter a Christian church,
but even to go near it, except under certain circumstances.
In Iore Dea (142,10) it says:
"It is forbidden to stand in the shadow of a house
of idolatry, whether from the inside or the outside, for a distance of
four cubits from the front door. It is not forbidden, however, to stand
under the shadow of the back of a church. Nor is the shadow forbidden us
if the church stands in a place where formerly there was a public road,
which was taken from the community and the house of idolatry built upon
it. For the road is still there. But if the house of idolatry existed before
the road, it is not permitted to pass before it. There are some who say
that it is forbidden to pass there in any case."
Neither is a jew allowed to listen to, or admire the beautiful
music of the churches. In Iore Dea (142, 15) it says:
"It is forbidden to listen to the music of idolatrous
worship, and to examine the statues of their idols; for even by looking
at them one can be influenced by the evil of idolatry. But one can look
who does not intend to be so affected."
Likewise a jew is not allowed to have a house near a church;
nor is he allowed to rebuild a house which has been destroyed in such a
place. In Iore Dea (143,1) it says:
"If a house near an idolatrous temple belonging to
the Akum falls down, it must not be rebuilt. A jew must remove it
a certain distance away if he wishes to rebuild it. But he must fill up
the vacant space between his house and the church with bushes and rubbish
so that the space will not be used to extend the idolatrous temple."
Here may be added what a certain rabbi Kelomimus said
about a Christian church (in the book Nizzachon)(54)
to the Emperor Henry III, who gave him permission to speak his opinion
freely about the Basilica which he had recently built at Spires:
(54) cf. Wagensel, Sota, p. 498
(55) This is how he calls this famous church. The German word is Thum,
and by a play on the word he calls it Tehom, which means abyss.
"After the Emperor Henry III, a very wicked man,
had completed the building of that "Abyss,"(55)
he sent for rabbi Kelominus and said to him: 'I want to ask you, how does
this Basilica which I have built compare with the magnificence of Solomon's
Temple, about which so many volumes have been written?' He replied: 'My
Lord, if you will permit me to speak freely, and if you will swear to me
that you will let me go unharmed, I will tell you the truth about it.'
The Emperor answered: 'I give you my word as a lover of the truth and as
an Emperor, that no harm shall come to you.' Then the jew said: 'If you
gathered together all you have spent so far, and added to it all the silver
and gold in your treasury, it would not suffice even to pay the workmen
and craftsmen that Solomon employed; for it is written (Chron. II,
ch 2): And Solomon told out threescore and ten thousand men to bear
burdens, and fourscore thousand to hew in the mountains, and three thousand
and six hundred to oversee them. Eight years were spent in the building
of the Temple, much more than you have spent in building this Tehom
[abyss]. And when Solomon had finished his Temple, see what the
Scripture says about it: The priests could not stand to minister by
reason of the cloud; for the glory of God had filled the House of the Lord
(Chron. II, Ch. 5, 14). But if someone loaded an ass with putrid
garbage and led it into this abyss of yours, no one would notice the difference!'
The Emperor Henry then replied: 'Were it not that I have sworn to let you
go unharmed, I would order your head cut off.' "
Chalices used in the Sacrifice of the mass are spoken
of as vessels in which filth is offered up to the idol. Moses Kozzensis,
in Hilkoth Abhodah Zarah (10b) says:
"A jew who buys Chalices of the Goi, which
are broken and thrown away, it is not permitted to sell them again to them,
because their priest of Baal will use them in the worship of the idol."
The talmud calls the books of the Christians Minim—heretical
books—Siphre Debeth Abidan—Books of the House of Perdition.(56)
The talmud in particular speaks of the books of the Gospels. Thus in Schabbath
"rabbi Meir calls heretical books Aaven Gilaion (volumes
of iniquity) because the call them Gospels."
(56) This is what jews call a Christian school
And rabbi Jochanan calls these books Aavon Gilaion,
evil books. The Schulchan Arukh, Crakow edition, gives this name
as Aven Niktabh al Haggilaion—iniquity written
in a book.
Buxtorf says: "In the Arukh there is a note Scheker
Niktabh al Gilaion, which means, a lie written in a book."
All the talmudists agree that the books of the Christians
should be destroyed. They differ only as to what should be done with the
names of God contained in them. In Schabbath (116a) it says:
"The Glossaries of our own books and the books of
the heretics are not to be saved from the flames, if they should catch
fire on the Sabbath day. rabbi Jose, however, says: 'On festival days the
divine names should be torn out of the books of the Christians and hidden
away; what remains must be given to the flames.' But rabbi Tarphon says:
'In order that I may be remembered by my children, if those books should
ever fall into my hands I would burn them together with the divine names
contained therein. For if one is chased by an assassin, or by a serpent,
it would be better to take refuge in a pagan temple than in one of theirs;
because the Christians knowingly resist the truth, whereas the pagans do
Christian prayers are called, not Tefillah, but
Tiflah. They change the point and insert Iod, which makes
it read to mean sin, foolishness and transgression.
6. CHRISTIAN FESTIVALS
Christian festivals, especially Sunday, are called Iom
Ed—day of destruction, perdition, misfortune or calamity. They are
also simply called Iom Notsri—Christian Days. The word Ed
rightly interpreted means misfortune or calamity, as appears from the Gemarah
and the Glossaries of Maimonides in Abhodah Zarah (2a):
"The word Edehem means the festivals of the
Christians, since it is written (in Deuter. XXXII, 35): the day
of their calamity."
Maimonides also says in Abhodah Zarah (78c):
"The word Edehem means the foolishness of
their festivals. It is the name for their despicable feast days which do
not merit the name of Moedim, for they are really vain and evil."
Baretenora also writes:
"The word Edehem is the name for their ignominious
festivals and solemnities."
The marginal notes of Tosephoth also give this
name to Christian festivals. Thus in Abhodah Zarah (6a):
"The Day of Evil, that is the Christian Day, is forbidden
to us as well as all their other feast days."
Some Christian festivals are mentioned by name, such as
the feast of Christmas and Easter. Moses Mikkozzi,(57)
referring to the above text of Abhodah Zarah , says:
"rabbi Sammuel declares, in the name of Solomon Iarchi,
that in particular the festivals of Christmas and Easter, which are their
principal evil days and the foundation of their religion, are forbidden
(57) cf. G. Edzard, ut supra.
Maimonides, in Hilkoth Akum (ch. IX) has the same:
"Sammuel repeats the words of rabbi Sal. Iarchi which
forbid us particularly to celebrate the feasts of Christmas and Easter,
which are celebrated on account of him who was hanged."
Furthermore, indications of the impiety of the jews are
to be found in the names which they give to these Christian festivals:
For in place of using Tav in the word Nithal, they often
write Tet and call it Nital for the Latin word Natalis,
the Feast of the Nativity. They make it appear as if this word were from
the root Natal which connotes extermination or destruction. Likewise
they refuse to use the word Paschal (Pesach) for the Christian
feast of Easter. The substitute Koph for Phe and insert the
letter iod and call it Ketsach or Kesach. Both pronunciations
have an evil meaning. Ketsach is from the root Katsah, meaning
to amputate or cut off from, and Kesach is from the root Kesa,
meaning wood or a gallows. This is done because the feast of Easter is
celebrated by Christians in memory of Christ—the one who was hanged—who
was put to death and who rose again from the dead.
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